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大学

HIGHER EDUCATION

 

A NEW TRANSLATION BY KU HUNG-MING, M.A. (EDIN.) (Gū HóNGMíNG, 辜鴻銘)

 

总纲 THE TEXT OF CONFUCIUS  
  『1』大学之道在明明德,在亲民,在止於至善。 
  The object of a Higher Education is to bring out () the intelligent () moral power  ()  of  our  nature;  to  make  a  new  and  better  society  (lit.  people)1;  and  to enable us to abide in the highest excellence.

2』知止而后有定; 2 When a man has a standard of excellence before him, and only then, will he have a fixed and definite purpose;

定而后能静; with a fixed and definite purpose, and only then, will he be able to have peace and tranquillity of mind;

静而后能安; with tranquillity of mind, and only  then,  will  he  be  able  to  have  peace  and  tranquillity  of  soul;

安而后能虑; with  peace  and serenity of soul, and only then, can he devote himself to deep, serious thinking and reflection;

虑而后能得。 and it is only by deep, serious thinking and reflection that a man can attain true culture.

3』古之欲明明德於天下者先治其国。。 
  3. Men in old times when they wanted to further the cause of enlightenment and civilization  in  the  world  began  first  by  securing  good  government  in  their  country.

欲治其国者先齐其家。When they wanted to secure good government in their country, they began first by putting their house in order.

欲齐其家者先修其身。When they wanted to put their house in order, they began first  by  ordering  their  conversation  aright. 

欲修其身者先正其心。When  they  wanted  to  put  their conversation  aright,  they  began  first  by  putting  their  minds  in  a  proper  and  well-ordered condition.

欲正其心者先诚其意。When they wanted to put their minds in a proper and well-ordered condition,  they  began  first  by  getting  true  ideas.

欲诚其意者先致其知。 When  they  wanted  to  have  true ideas, they began first by acquiring knowledge and understanding.

致知在格物。The acquirement of knowledge and understanding comes from a systematic study of things.

4』物格而后知至。After  a  systematic  study  of  things,  and  only  then,  knowledge  and understanding will come.

知至而后意诚。When knowledge and understanding have come, and only then, will men have true ideas.

意诚而后心正。When men have true ideas, and only then, will their minds be in a proper and well-ordered condition.

心正而后身修。When men’s minds are in a proper and well-ordered condition, and only then, will their conversation be ordered aright.

身修 而后家齐。When men’s conversations are ordered aright, and only then, will their houses be kept in order. 

家齐而后国治。When  mens  houses  are  kept  in  order,  and  only  then,  will  there  be  good government in the country.

国治而后天下平。 When there is good government in all countries, and only then, will there be peace and order in the world.

5』物有本末;事有终始。知所先後则近道矣。 

In physical nature, there are causes and effects. In human affairs, there are  springs  of  actions  and  consequences.  When  a  man  knows  that  he must first attend to the one before he can deal with the other, he is then not  far  from  the  truth.
  『6』自天子以至於庶人壹是皆以修身为本。 
  1.  From  the  Emperor  down  to  the  lowest  of  the common people, the one thing that all must do is to make the ordering of  their  conversation  aright,  the  foundation  for  everything. 

7』其本乱而末治者,否矣。其所厚者薄而其所薄者厚,未之有也。 
  When  the foundation is in disorder, that which is built on it will not be in order. When  that  which  is  essential  is  neglected,  that  which  is  not  essential can never be properly attended to.

(右经一章,盖孔子之言,而曾子述之;其传十章,则曾子之意,而门人记之也。旧本颇有错简,今因程子所定,而更考经文,别为序次如下。)


  COMMENTARY

第一章 I
  『1』康诰曰,「克明德。」 
1.  The Commission of Investiture to Prince K’ang says:  “He (the Emperor Wen) succeeded in making manifest the power of his moral nature.” 

2』太甲曰,「顾諟天之明命。」 

2.  In the Address of the Minister I-Yin to the Emperor T’ai Chia, it is said:  “He  (the  great  Emperor  T’ang)  kept  constantly  before  him  the  clear Ordinance of God.” 

3』帝典曰:「克明峻德。」 

3.  In the Memorial Record of the Emperor Yao, it is said:  “He  succeeded  in  making  manifest  the  lofty  sublimity  of  his  moral nature.”

4』皆自明也。          (右传之首章,释明明德。) 

Thus all these men made manifest the intelligent moral power of their nature.

 This  section  explains  what  “to  bring  out  the  intelligent  power  of  our nature,” means.


  第二章 II
  『1』汤之盘铭曰:「苟日新,日日新,又日新。」    

1.  The Inscription on the Emperor T’ang’s bath says:  “Be a new man each day; from day to day be a new man; every day be a new man.”

  『2』康诰曰,「作新民。」 
 2.  The Commission of Investiture to Prince K’ang says:  “Create a new society.”

 『3』诗曰:「周虽旧邦,其命维新。」 
 3.  The Book of Songs says:     Although the Royal House of Chou was an old State,     a new Mission was given to it. 

4』是故君子无所不用其极。    (右传之二章,释新民。)

 4.  Therefore  whatever  a  gentleman  finds  for  his  hands  to  do,  he  doeth with all his might.  This section explains what “to make a new and better society,” means.


  第三章 III
  『1』诗云,「邦畿千里,惟民所止。」

1.  The Book of Songs says:     The Imperial Domain was a thousand li wide;    within it all the people found their abode.  
  『2』诗云,「缗蛮黄鸟,止於丘隅。」子曰:「於止,知其所止,可以人而不如鸟乎?」

2.  The Book of Songs, again, says:  The twittering yellow bird has found its abode on the side of a little hill.  Confucius commenting on this said:  “In choosing their abode, even the birds know what to choose. Can it be that man is less intelligent than birds?” 
  『3』诗云,「穆穆文王,於缉熙敬止。」为人君,止於仁;为人臣,止於敬;为人子,止於孝;为人父,止於慈;与国人交,止於信。 

3.  The Book of Songs says:     Profoundly serious was the Emperor Wen.     Ah! how earnestly he strove to realize his ideals.  As a ruler, his ideal was to love mankind. As a subject, his ideal was to respect authority. As a son his ideal was to be a dutiful son. As a father, his ideal was to be kind to his children. In intercourse with his fellow men, his ideal was to be faithful and true.
  『4』诗云,「瞻彼淇澳,绿竹猗猗。有斐君子。如切如磋,如琢如磨。瑟兮僴兮,赫兮喧兮。有斐君子,终不可喧兮。」「如切如磋」者,道学也;「如琢如磨」者,自修也;「瑟兮僴兮」者,恂栗也;「赫兮喧兮」者,威仪也;「有斐君子,终不可喧兮」者,道盛德至善,民之不能忘也。 

4.  The Book of Songs says:     Look where the river forms a nook,    How trim the fresh green bamboos are;    So full of grace is he, – our Prince,    Like ivory finely cut and filed;    Like a gem chiselled, ground and ground again.    Oh! how distinguished and calm he looks,    Oh! how majestic and grand his air;    So full of grace is he, – our Prince,    Oh! His glory will never end.   The words “cut and filed” refer to the care that he took to improve his knowledge. The words “chiselled and ground” refer to the care that he took to make himself perfect. The words “how distinguished and calm he looks” show the seriousness of his mind. The words “how majestic and grand his air” show the dignity of his manners. Lastly, the words, “So  full  of  grace  is  he    our  Prince,  Oh!  His  glory  will  never  end,” means  that  when  glorious  moral  qualities  are  brought  to  such perfection, the people will never forget them.
  『5』诗云,「於戏前王不忘!」君子贤其贤,而亲其亲。小人乐其乐,而利其利。此以没世不忘也。             ) 

5.  The Book of Songs says:   “Ah, the former kings are not forgotten!”  The higher classes appreciate their great moral qualities and love them. The lower classes are made happier and enjoy the benefits derived from their work. In this way they attain immortality.     

(右传之三章,释止於至善。

This section explains what “to abide in the highest excellence,” means.


第四章 IV
  子曰:「听讼,吾犹人也。必也,使无讼乎?」无情者,不得尽其辞,大畏民志。此谓知本。                      (右传之四章,释本末。) 

Confucius says:   “In deciding lawsuits, I am not better than other men. But what I make it a point to do is – I try to make lawsuits impossible. Men who come before  me  without  a  just  cause  have  nothing  to  say  for  themselves.” Watch therefore with fear and trembling over the hearts of the people. That  is  the  root  of  the  matter  in  knowledge.  That  is  the  highest knowledge.


  第五章 
  『1』此谓知本。 
  『2』此谓知之至也。 
  (右传之五章,盖释格物致知之义,而今亡矣。闲尝窃取程子之意,以补之曰:)

所谓致知在格物者:言欲至吾之知,在即物而穷其理也,盖人心之灵,莫不有知,而天下之物,莫不有理。惟於理有未穷,故其知有不尽也。是以大学始教,必使学者即凡天下之物。莫不因其已知之理,而益穷之,以求至乎其极。至於用力之久,而一旦豁然贯通焉。则众物之表里精粗无不到,而吾心之全体大用,无不明矣。此谓物格。此谓知之至也。 

 

  第六章 
  『1』所谓诚其意者:毋自欺也,如恶恶臭,如好好色。此之谓自谦。故君子必慎其独也。 
V 1.  Now what is meant by “to have true ideas” is to have no self-deception, as when one hates a bad smell or loves what is beautiful. That is what is called self-detachment.5 Therefore a gentleman watches diligently over his secret thought.

2』小人闲居为不善,无所不至,见君子,而后厌然。 掩其不善,而著其善。人之视己,如见其肺肝然,则何益矣。此谓诚於中,形於外。故君子必慎其独也。 

 2.  When he is alone, there is no evil which an immoral man will not do; but  when  he  sees  a  gentleman,  he  immediately  disguises  himself  and conceals what is evil and shows off what is good within him. But men see through us as though our hearts and reins lay open to them. What is the  use  then  of  concealing?  That  is  what  is  meant  by  the  saying  that what  is  truly  within  will  surely  show  without.  Therefore  a  gentleman watches diligently over his secret thought.
  『3』曾子曰,「十目所视,十手所指,其严乎。」 
     The disciple of Confucius, Tseng-tzu, says: “When you know that ten eyes are looking upon you and ten fingers are pointing at you, is it not awful?” 

4』富润屋,德润身。心广体胖。故君子必诚其意。    (右传之六章,释诚意。

4.  Wealth embellishes a house, but moral qualities embellish the person. When the mind is free and easy, the body will grow in flesh. Therefore a gentleman must have true ideas.


  第七章 
  『1』所谓修身在正其心者:身有所忿 ,则不得其正。有所恐惧,则不得其正。有所好乐,则不得其正。有所忧患,则不得其正。 
  『2』心不在焉,视而不见,听而不闻,食而不知其味。 
  『3』此谓修身在正其心。                    (右传之七章,释正心修身。

1. Now  what  is  meant  by  saying  that  the  ordering  of  one’s  conversation aright depends upon putting the state of the mind in a proper and well-ordered  condition,  is  this.  When  a  person  is  under  the  influence  of passion, his mind is not in a proper and well-ordered condition. When he is under the influence of fear and terror, his mind is not in a proper and well-ordered condition. When he is under the influence of pleasure and amusement, his mind is not in a proper and well-ordered condition. When he is under the influence of sorrow and distress, his mind is not in a proper and well-ordered condition.

2. When the mind is absent, we look, but do not see; we hear but do not understand; we eat, but do not know the taste of that which we eat. 

3.  This is what is meant by saying that the ordering of one’s conversation aright depends upon putting the state of the mind in a proper and well-ordered condition.


  第八章 
  『1』所谓齐其家在修其身者:人之其所亲爱而辟焉。之其所贱恶而辟焉。之其所畏敬而辟焉。之其所哀矜而辟焉。之其所敖惰而辟焉。故好而知其恶,恶而知其美者,天下鲜矣。 
  『2』故谚有之曰,「人莫知其子之恶,莫知其苗之硕。」 
  『3』此谓身不修,不可以齐其家。              (右传之八章,释修身齐家。)

Now what is meant by saying that putting one’s house in order depends upon  the  ordering  of  his  conversation  aright,  is  this.  Men  are  biassed towards those for whom they feel love and affection; biassed towards those of whom they despise and dislike; towards those for whom they feel  pity  and  compassion;  biassed  towards  those  towards  whom  they feel arrogance and pride. Wherefore it is that there are few men in the world  who  love  and  yet  know  the  bad  qualities  of  those  whom  they love;  who  hate  and  yet  know  the  good  qualities  of  those  whom  they hate.

 2.  Hence it is said in the common adage: “No man knows the wickedness of his son, no man knows the richness of his crops.” 

3.  This is what is meant by saying that unless you order your conversation aright, you cannot put your house in order.


  第九章 
  『1』所谓治国必先齐其家者:其家不可教,而能教人者,无之。故君子不出家,而成教於国。孝者,所以事君也;弟者,所以事长也;慈者,所以使众也。 
  『2』康诰曰,「如保赤子,心诚求之。」虽不中、不远矣,未有学养子,而後嫁者也。 
  『3』一家仁,一国兴仁;一家让,一国兴让;一人贪戾,一国作乱。其机如此,此谓一言偾事,一人定国。

Now what is meant by saying that in order to have good government in the  country,  one  must  first  put  one’s  house  in  order,  is  this.  He  who cannot  teach  the  members  of  his  own  family  to  be  good,  can  never teach other people to be good. Hence the moral man, without going out of his house, can learn the duties which he owes to the State. The duties of a good son will teach him how to serve his Sovereign. The duties of subordination  in  the  family  will  teach  him  to  respect  authority.  The kindness  of  a  father  to  his  children  will  teach  him  how  to  treat  the multitude.

 2.  The Commission of Investiture to Prince K’ang says: “Watch over the people as a mother watches over her new born child.” A  mother  who  seeks  with  her  whole  heart  the  good  of  her  child, although she makes mistakes, will never go wholly wrong. No girl ever had to learn how to take care of her child before marriage. 

3.  When there is kindness and humanity in one family, the whole nation will grow kind and humane. When there is courtesy and politeness in one family, the whole nation will all become polite and courteous. The ambition  and  perversity  of  one  man,  on  the  other  hand,  may  bring  to confusion  and  anarchy  the  whole  nation.  Such  is  the  power  of influence. Hence the saying: “One word can ruin everything; one man can save a nation.”
  『4』尧舜帅天下以仁,而民从之。桀纣帅天下以暴,而民从之。其所令反其所好,而民不从。是故君子,有诸己,而后求诸人。无诸己,而后非诸人。所藏乎身不恕而能喻诸人者,未之有也。 
  『5』故治国在齐其家。 

4. The  Emperors  Yao  and  Shun  set  up  humanity  as  their  principle  in governing the Empire, and the people responded and became humane. The  Emperors  Chieh  and  Chou  set  up  cruelty  as  their  principle  in governing  the  Empire,  and  the  people  responded  and  became  cruel. When  rulers  give  orders  which  are  contrary  to  that  which  they themselves love to practise, the people will not obey them. Therefore, before requiring any moral quality of the people, the ruler must himself have that moral quality; before condemning any vice in the people, he must himself be free of that vice. A man who does not consider his own moral condition can never influence others for good.

 5.  Therefore government in a country depends upon putting one’s house in order. 
  『6』诗云,「桃之夭夭,其叶蓁蓁,之子於归,宜其家人。」宜其家人,而后可以教国人。 
  『7』诗云,「宜兄宜弟。」宜兄宜弟,而后可以教国人。 
  『8』诗云,「其仪不忒,正是四国。」其为父子兄弟足法,而后民法之也。 
  『9』此谓治国,在齐其家。             (右传之九章,释齐家治国。

The Book of Songs says:     The peach tree is tender and fair,     With its leaves all in bloom;    The girl is going to her new home,    She will rightly order her household.  Only  when  there  is  order  in  the  household,  is  it  possible  to  teach  the people of the nation to be good.

 7.  The Book of Songs says:     Do your duty to your elder brothers,    Do your duty to your younger brothers.  Only  when  a  man  has  done  his  duty  to  his  brothers  at  home,  can  he teach the people of the nation to be good. 

8.  The Book of Songs says:     His manners were without reproach.    He therefore brought the whole nation to order.  Thus  only  when  the  ruler  is  fit  to  be  to  his  people  a  model  father,  a model son and a model brother, will the people take him as their model.

9. This  is,  then,  what  is  meant  by  saying  that  good  government  in  a country depends upon putting one’s house in order.


  第十章 
  『1』所谓平天下在治其国者:上老老,而民兴孝;上长长,而民兴弟;上恤孤,而民不倍。是以君子有絜榘之道也。 

Now what is meant by saying that peace and order throughout the world depend  upon  having  good  government  in  one’s  own  country,  is  this. When those in authority honour old age, the people will become dutiful sons.  When  those  in  authority  respect  and  obey  their  superiors,  the people will all become good citizens. When those in authority take care of  the  poor  and  helpless,  the  people  will  not  neglect  them.  Thus  a gentleman has a self-measuring rule. 

  『2』所恶於上,毋以使下。所恶於下,毋以事上。所恶於前,毋以先後。所恶於後,毋以从前。所恶於右,毋以交於左。所恶於左,毋以交於右。此之谓絜榘之道。 

2.  What a man hates in the conduct of those who are above him, let him not show it in his treatment of those who are under him. What he hates in the conduct of those who are under him, let him not show it when doing  his  duty  to  those  who  are  above  him.  What  he  hates  in  the conduct of those who go before him, let him not be the first to show in dealing with those who come after him. What he hates in the conduct of those who come after him, let him not follow their example and show in dealing with those who go before him. What he hates in the conduct of those  who  are  on  the  right  hand  of  him,  let  him  not  show  in  dealing with  those  who  are  on  the  left  hand  of  him.  What  he  hates  in  the conduct of those who are on the left hand of him, let him not show in dealing  with  those  who  are  on  the  right  hand  of  him.  This  is  what  is called a self-measuring rule.
  『3』诗云:「乐只君子,民之父母。」民之所好好之;民之所恶恶之。此之谓民之父母。 
    3. The Book of Songs says: “How  the  people  love  the  prince  who  is  a  father  and  a  mother  to  the people.”   To love what the people love and to hate what the people hate: that is what is meant by being a father and a mother to the people.

4』诗云:「节彼南山,维石岩岩。赫赫师尹,民具尔瞻。」有国者不可以不慎。辟则为天下僇矣。 4.  The Book of Songs says:     Lofty like the southern hill,    With its rugged mass of rocks;    Awful you are, my lord of Yin,    The people all look up to you.  Those who are responsible for the government of a nation cannot be too careful in what they do. The least mistake on their part will have awful consequences to the world.
  『5』诗云,「殷之未丧师,克配上帝。仪监於殷,峻命不易。」道得众,则得国;失众,则失国。 

The Book of Songs says:     Before the Yin rulers had lost the hearts of the people,    They found favour in the sight of God;    Take warning then from the House of Yin,    The great High Mission is not easy to hold.

This means that when a ruler gains the heart of the people, he will gain the  kingdom;  when  he  loses  the  hearts  of  the  people,  he  will  lose  the kingdom.
  『6』是故君子先慎乎德。有德,此有人;有人,此有土;有土,此有财;有财,此有用。 
  『7』德者本也。财者末也。 

6. Therefore the first care of the ruler is to make sure that he has the moral qualities.  Who  has  the  moral  qualities,  has  the  people;  who  has  the people,  has  the  land;  who  has  the  land,  has  the  revenue;  who  has  the revenue, has the power to use it. 

7.  Moral qualities are the foundation of a nation. Wealth is but the means. When the ruler mistakes the end for the means and the means for the end,  the  result  will  be  rapine  and  scrambling  for  wealth  among  the people. Therefore the accumulation of wealth in a few hands leads to the  dissolution  of  Society,  while  the  distribution  of  wealth  among  the many contributes to the stability of Society.
  『8』外本内末,争民施夺。 
  『9』是故财聚,则民散。财散,则民聚。 
  『10』是故言悖而出者亦悖而入;货悖而入者亦悖而出。 
  『11』康诰曰,「惟命不於常。」道善则得之,不善则失之矣。 
  『12』楚书曰,「楚国无以为宝;惟善以为宝。」 

8. Hence it is said: “Words spoken in violence will return again with violence, and wealth gotten by violence will be taken away by violence.” 

9.  The Commission of Investiture to Prince K’ang says: “The Divine Mission is not given us for ever,” that is to say, if we are good, we shall win it; if we are not good, we shall lose it. 

10.  In the History of the Kingdom of C’hu it is said: “There is naught that the people of C’hu deem precious; goodness alone they deem precious.” 

13』舅犯曰,「亡人,无以为宝;仁亲以为宝。」 
  『14』秦誓曰,「若有一介臣,断断兮,无他技,其心休休焉,其如有容焉,人之有技,若己有之,人之彦圣,其心好之,不啻若自其口出, 实能容之:以能保我子孙黎民,尚亦有利哉。人之有技,媢疾以恶之,人之彦圣而违之,俾不通, 不能容:以不能保我子孙黎民,亦曰殆哉。 

11. Fan, the uncle of Duke Wen of the Kingdom of T’sin, while the Duke was in exile abroad, said: “Our Prince now in exile considers nothing as precious; he only holds as precious his love for his parents.”

 12.  In his speech from the Throne, the Duke of T’sin said: “Let  me  have  as  my  Minister  a  plain  and  simple  man  who  has absolutely  no  other  qualification  except  a  free  and  open  mind  and  a broad  and  tolerant  spirit;  who  regards  the  possession  of  abilities  by others  as  if  he  possessed  them  himself;  who  shows  his  broad  and tolerant spirit by taking the same delight in the superior intelligence of others as he would were it his own. Such a man will be able to protect our children and grandchildren, the black-haired people. He will benefit us in every way. A man, on the other hand, who, when he sees others possessing  abilities,  is  envious  of  and  hates  them;  who,  when  he  sees superior intelligence in others, shows his narrow and intolerant spirit by putting difficulties in their way, so that they cannot get known, such a man  will  not  be  able  to  protect  our  children  and  grandchildren,  the black-haired  people.  He  will  in  every  way  be  a  man  dangerous  to  us all.” 
  『15』唯仁人,放流之,迸诸四夷,不与同中国。此谓唯仁人,为能爱人,能恶人。 
  『16』见贤而不能举,举而不能先,命也。见不善而不能退,退而不能远,过也。 
  『17』好人之所恶,恶人之所好:是谓拂人之性。菑必逮夫身。 
  『18』是故君子,有大道必忠信以得之;骄泰以失之。 
  『19』生财有大道,生之者众,食之者寡。为之者疾,用之者舒。则财恒足矣。 
  『20』仁者,以财发身。不仁者,以身发财。 

13. It is the duty of all good men to banish such a man and drive him to live among  the  uncivilized  heathen,  not  to  allow  him  to  live  with  us  in China. This is what is meant by saying: “It is only the truly good and moral man who can love or hate others.” 

14.  To see men of worth and not be able to raise them to office, but to keep them in a subordinate position under you, that is gross neglect of duty. To see bad and unworthy men and not be able to remove them, – that is weakness. 

15.  To  love  and  like  those  whom  all  men  hate  and  dislike;  to  hate  and dislike those whom all men love and like; that is to outrage the natural feeling of men. Calamities will be sure to overtake a person who thus acts.

 16.  Thus  in  life  there  is  one  great  law  for  a  gentleman.  If  faithful  and trustworthy, he is sure to succeed; if proud and careless, he is sure to fail. In the same manner in the production of wealth there is one great law. When there are many who produce and few who consume; when those who work, work hard, and those who spend, spend slowly; then there will always be plenty of wealth in the nation.

 17.  Moral men make money to live. Immoral men live to make money.
  『21』未有上好仁,而下不好义者也。未有好义,其事不终者也。未有府库财非其财者也。 
   18. You will never find where the rulers are human and kind that the people do not love honour and duty. You will never find where the people in a nation  love  honour  and  duty,  that  the  affairs  of  that  nation  do  not prosper, and that the wealth in the nation does not belong to the ruler. 

22』孟献子曰,「畜马乘,不察於鸡豚。伐冰之家不畜牛羊。百乘之家不畜聚敛之臣,与其有聚敛之臣。宁有盗臣。」此谓国不以利为利,以义为利也。 
    19.  The noble Lord Meng Hsien said: “The  man  who  keeps  horses  and  carriages,  does  not  look  after  fowls and pigs. The family that stores ice in the house, does not rear oxen and sheep.  In  the  same  manner  the  ruler  of  a  nation  should  not  keep  a minister whose sole aim is to exact as much money as he can from the people.  Rather  than  have  such  a  minister,  it  were  better  to  have  a minister who openly robs him.”  This  is  what  is  meant  by  saying  that  what  really  makes  a  nation prosperous is not wealth and material prosperity, but honour and duty.

23』长国家而务财用者,必自小人矣,彼为善之。小人之使为国家,菑害并至,虽有善者,亦无如之何矣。此谓国不以利为利,以义为利也。    (右传之十章,释治国平天下。

 20.  When  a  ruler  who  wishes  to  make  his  nation  prosperous  and  great, devotes  his  attention  only  to  questions  of  finance  and  revenue,  he  is surely under the influence of some base and ignoble person. When such a base and ignoble person directs the affairs of a nation, even though he be a man of ability, calamities and disaster will follow, and then even a good man who comes after him, will be able to do nothing. This, then, is what is meant by saying that what really makes a nation prosperous is not wealth and material prosperity, but honour and duty.
  (凡传十章:前四章统论纲领指趣;後六章细论条目工夫。其第五章乃明善之要。第六章乃诚身之本,在初学;尤为当务之急。读者不可以其近而忽之也。)

按:编者认为此原文最有代表性,条理清楚,章序竟然。然,整理者不详。